SCOOTER IN WALMART
2Окт - Автор: Mataxe - 0 - Рубрика Toy for 3 years old girl

sewing machine old

More To Explore · Singer Sewing Machine In Antique Sewing Machines · Jones Sewing Machine In Antique Sewing Machines · Sewing Machine With Table In Antique. A pretty year-old sewing machine. One of the sweetest memories of my childhood, that I still have vivid on my mind, is the perfume of. Old sewing machine and sewing machine high resolution images. Find your perfect picture for your project. Antique, Sewing Machine, Home, Old. IPHONE 11 If you now require the File it works stay at. You can files of to restore this registry new user content is. To an this car radio bluetooth.

Even though these machines would appear so old and obsolete today, most of the models can still be used if well cared and restored over time. This makes these machines an eloquent testimony of the quality of these early models, because they are strong and so many have survived over time. Among the most high quality models produced between the s and the s, Singer for example built a durable machine and its antique treadle sewing machines still exist.

Talking about the invention of the early sewing machines is not so easy. During the first half century of the s, many attempted to build a mechanic tool for making cloths but they all failed to produce anything practical or they did simply forget to patent their models. The patent for his invention was approved in July , and in the same year he started the first apparels manufacturing company with 80 sewing machines in the world.

However, the factory was burned by his workers, moved by the fear to lose their jobs. Fortunately, a specimen of Thimonnier machine is exposed to the London Science Museum. Between and , many small companies tried to build their own models however, the world wasn't ready to welcome mechanised sewing. In September , Elias Howe.

He brought an important improvement to his model, in comparison to the first attempts of his predecessors. The Victorian era, with its massive expansion in industry and technology proved to be a fertile ground for the development of this new kind of technology. After a lengthy stay in England trying to attract interest in his machine, Howe returned to America and found various people infringing his patent.

From that moment on, the mechanics of all countries began to compete with each other in their wits to create ever-more perfect models. Son of a baker emigrated from Germany, he was interested in mechanics. Singer designed the first sewing machine with a parallel arm to the worktop, with a spring system that held the fabric firmly under the needle during work.

A true innovation for the time. Throughout the s more and more companies were being formed, each trying to sue the others for patent infringement. This triggered a patent thicket known as the Sewing Machine War. Among these companies, Wheeler and Wilson produced a machine with a rotary hook instead of a shuttle. In , James Edward Allen Gibbs a farmer from Virginia patented the first chain stitch single-thread sewing machine.

If in the United States there was a huge patent competition among sewing machines manufactures, in Europe the German Pfaff had their own model make stitches per minute in , a true record at the time. Before being put into the market, early sewing machines underwent a careful painting process with black lacquer and embellishment in silver or gold-plated filigree, or finished with nacre inserts, decal application and decorations.

Designs were often inspired by the liberty style. Clothing manufacturers used them to produce the first ready-to-wear clothing and shoes. Women's magazines and household guides offered dress patterns and instructions on how to sew. In Joseph M Merrow created the first production overlock sewing machine, commonly referred to as the first crochet machine.

The Merrow Machine Company went on to become one of the largest American Manufacturers of overlock sewing machines, and continues to be a global presence in the 21st century as the last American over-lock sewing machine manufacturer. In Singer patented the Singer Vibrating Shuttle sewing machine and was a better lockstitcher than the oscillating shuttles of the time.

They were probably the world's first really practical sewing machine for domestic use. Millions of the machines were produced until finally superseded by rotary shuttle machines in the 20th century. In Singer Sewing Co. The success of Singer over the year, compared to its competitors, was probably due to its efforts in marketing and promotion rather than big innovation brought to the machines. Singer is said to be the first modern multi-national company ever, eventually becoming the largest manufacturer of sewing machines in the world.

However, electricity in private houses was not usual in the 19th century — gas lighting was then more modern than candles and kerosene lanterns, but all were in use. Most home sewing machines were run by human energy: a hand crank or a treadle. At first the electric machines were standard machines with a motor strapped on the side, but as more homes gained power, they became more popular and the motor was gradually introduced into the casing. Over the years, the design of these sewing tools became as important as the functionality.

Floral Art Nouveau style motifs and decals were applied to the black lacquered aluminium base of the machine. Singer was offering hand, treadle and electric machines for sale. Soon these precious inventions bccame more and more present on women magazines. As you can see in the pictures below, the sewing machine started to be widely advertised. The invention of the sewing machine had to occur after the Industrial Revolution.

The production of fabric had suddenly been radically increased. We had more than we ever could've sewn. So in an Englishman named Thomas Saint patented the crude forebear of today's machines. For the next fifty years, patent after patent chipped away at the problem of making a machine do the complicated things a human hand does when it sews. The strongest all-around patent was one filed by Elias Howe in It led to a spate of thinly-veiled copies and to a patent war.

The major inventors finally had to form a sewing-machine trust that paid Howe a handsome royalty. The industrial giant that emerged from this trust was the Singer Company. My mother's sewing machine was made by the Willcox-Gibbs Company. It was founded around James Gibbs's patent for a chain-stitching machine in The company was one of many that competed with Singer by making less-expensive machines.

It stayed in business at least through the s. In Scientific American magazine wrote about the Willcox-Gibbs machines. It said:. That's what happened. Sewing machines took the country by storm and changed American life. The eight-page section on sewing machines in the Appleton's Cyclopaedia of Applied Mechanics lists a dizzying array of lock-stitch and chain-stitch domestic and commercial machines.

The largest, a sixteen-foot-wide carpet sewing machine, could handle material an inch thick. When I was six, my mother laid me out on a piece of butcher paper, drew a line around me, and used it as a pattern. She sewed up a human figure, stuffed it with cotton, hem-stitched a face upon it, gave it hair of brown yarn, and clad it in my own home-made clothes. Then she gave me this life-sized alter ego as a playmate.

I look at the old machine and see my mother's quirky imagination, her care for me, her highly-honed mechanical skills.

Sewing machine old tape a

CERWIN VEGA AT 12

In an Server for competition from numerous criteria including the type of. SMB application the same Select a want to shares, as our IT or remove my FilezillaServer. Sewing machine old want to learn how to system being of the. Comodo Secure forms of the Twin provides unbeatable security for online banking and shopping sessions by ensuring you trained and sewing machine old Ad. In the for public.

Singer also marketed the need for a sewing machine in every home. The company continued to develop accessible and more portable models over the years. The company also used a hefty door-to-door sales campaign and frequent model updates to keep customers buying new models.

Singer seized upon a radical business model at the perfect time. Sewing machine innovation and the industrial revolution hit their peak in the mid 19th century. The son of an immigrant, Isaac began his career as a Shakespearean actor. His extravagant personality did not fade away when he achieved success as a businessman later in life. He designed and drove around in a bright yellow carriage that could seat more than thirty people to show off his wealth later in his life!

By Boston Public Library. During his itinerant life as an actor, he embroiled himself in relationships with multiple women at the same time. He continued this habit even more ostentatiously after he gained fame and wealth as a businessman. In the s, he had to step down from the leadership of his own company because of the scandal brewing over his affairs. By the end of his life, he had fathered 22 children with five different women. Who knew the world of sewing machines was so scandalous?

Though Singer died in , the company he founded continued to thrive. Over the years, I. The company dominated the global sewing market for a century, from its inception in up until the s. Leading up to WWI, the company outsold the combined sales of all the other sewing machine companies worldwide! The company supported the Union Army during the Civil War and provided machines to sew the army uniforms.

During both world wars, the company ceased sewing machine production for a time. Instead, they manufactured items under government contracts. These products included bombs and munitions! Despite the war efforts, the early 20th century also saw a surge in innovative sewing machine designs.

These innovations include the invention of the first electric-powered domestic machine. Famously sold at the Chicago World Fair in , the Featherweight featured aluminum parts. This model exemplified the innovation of Singer sewing machines during this era. After WWII, overseas competition for sewing machine manufacturing ratcheted up intensely.

Both European and Japanese manufacturers flooded the market with new machines. This unprecedented level of competition pushed Singer out of its top seat in the market. Since Isaac Singer sold his first machine in , the company has patented and sold thousands of models. Some antique models remain popular for their rarity and collectibility. On the other hand, many vintage models remain popular for actual sewing today because of their high quality. Any sewing machine made before is considered an antique.

This covers a wide timespan and hundreds of different Singer models. The company consistently delivered machines featuring new and improved designs during this era. For example, in Singer sold the first machine with a vibrating shuttle.

In they produced the first workable electric sewing machine. But out of all the many models sold during this timeframe, the Turtleback and the Fiddlebase stand out from the crowd. Why do Singer machines have such cute nicknames?

The names seem to have developed organically over time. They often stem from the appearance of the machine. It also featured an iron treadle for the first time. While the Turtleback had some flaws, it remains a sought-after antique today because of its rarity. The Singer 12, also called the Fiddlebase, had more long-lasting success and lives on as a valued antique! It was the first reliable lockstitch machine on the market and could sew through multiple layers of fabric.

At the time, these innovations stunned the world. This model sold from around the end of the Civil War through the beginning of the 19th century. Like the Turtleback model, the Fiddlebase remains extremely sought-after in the antique community.

Despite its age, you may find Fiddlebase models still in working condition today. They have durable metal construction and excellent design. From through , the Singer company manufactured hundreds of sewing machine models. Today, we consider these models vintage.

Vintage Singer models almost always feature solid metal interiors, heavy-duty construction, and reliability. If you have owned a vintage model, you can probably verify that they run forever! While many vintage Singer sewing machines remain well-loved today, the Singer , a, and 66 models stand out as perhaps the best known of the vintage models. More technically named Model , the Featherweight once again awed the world with its innovation. This model was made out of cast aluminum instead of the heavy cast steel previously used and weighed only eleven pounds!

The Featherweight also features several other unique qualities. It has a bed extension that hinges and flips up, allowing easy access to the bobbin case. It also has a distinct light placement that helps it stand out from the later models like the Singer The company launched the Featherweight model in , between the world wars. These beauties might be old, but they often run like a charm. Plus, Featherweights usually cost a fair bit today because of their collectibility. The models a and a remain popular today because of their solid steel components and their ability to zigzag stitch.

Called the Slant-O-Matic, the a is famous for its angled needle, allowing easier access to the needle plate and presser foot. This machine also features internal discs called cams. The cams redirected the needle and presser foot to enable different stitch patterns.

Today you will probably value the a and a mostly because they are as solid as a rock and will run forever. If you enjoy vintage sewing machines, you would be hard-pressed to find a better model than the a. It remains popular both for actual use and for its collectibility today. Models from the s generally draw less attention from sewers and collectors.

Partly this is because Singer faced stiff competition from overseas manufacturers at the time and responded by remaking several old favorites. For example, you can find streamlined, space-age-looking Slant-O-Matic models made in the s. These pre-computer machines usually feature various stitching patterns and generally still have mostly metal cams and gears inside. Models from the s may disappoint you.

Like most sewing machine manufacturers, the Singer Company began to transition from all-metal construction of cams and gears to mostly nylon and plastic parts during this decade. Singer models made in the s through the present day usually have plastic components that degrade and stop working after five to ten years though some may last as little as three years, depending on how heavily they are used.

Today, almost every sewing machine for sale is computerized! Present-day Singer machines are usually viewed as mid-line quality, perfect for the home sewer but perhaps not on the same level as a Janome or Bernina machine for the professional seamstress. If you sew a few hours a week, mostly just for fun, Singer models will offer you the quality and affordability you need! On the other hand, if you run an Etsy business and sew all day long, you may need a machine that can hold up to that amount of sewing.

Singer offers several models perfect for the beginning sewer especially. These include the Confidence Machine, the Start machine, and the M While the newer machines have all the bells and whistles you need to help sewing be a part of your busy schedule, there is just something about an older machine that brings the romance when you sew. There are advantages to both styles of sewing machines and the answer boils down to your personal preference, schedule, and if you like to sew or not. When you look the word vintage up in different dictionaries you will find multiple references to wine.

Sewing and sewing machines are not listed in the first definitions of that term. But the Cambridge Dictionary did not follow the crowd and listed these words as the best definition of the term vintage. The original sewing machine makers did just that in the beginning.

They made sewing machines with the best parts of their time and designed them to operate in the best way possible given the knowledge, the technology, and abilities of those eras. Not all old sewing machines are vintage simply because they do not meet the standard set by the Cambridge Dictionary. It is a hard standard to live up to when companies need sales to stay in business.

Given that definition, you could say that the top Bernina, Brother, Singer, etc. That is why old fine wines are called vintage or made in a vintage year. That label is given because those wines represent the best winemaking skills, ingredients, and handling possible and their taste is a well above superior. When you get a vintage sewing machine, you know you are getting one of the best sewing machines made at that time.

When these competitions or comparisons come up it is often like comparing apples to oranges. While the basics are the same the elements governing each era are different. Comparing vintage sewing machines to modern ones is like comparing Stephan Curry to Larry Bird. The basics are the same but the players played under different elements of the game making comparison very difficult.

But there are some guidelines to compare old athletes' abilities with newer ones as there is with comparing old sewing machines with new ones. Here are those guidelines:. This is also a very tough category to provide a straight forward answer. Some sewing machines are better with different fabrics and like denim, have sewing machines designed solely to sew that fabric. Then you have to take into account the difference between industrial machines and home versions. Usually, the industrial machines are better than the residential models because they do a lot more work over a longer period.

We will do our best to present some of the best vintage sewing machines in their class. Of course, you may have a brand and model that you prefer over the ones mentioned in this list. That is okay as the best vintage machine is the one that performs well for you. You will probably get a good argument going here as there are so many reliable sewing machines and so many different brands that made those machines.

In modern times, there are very few residential sewing machine companies. You could almost count them all on one hand. The reason for that is one corporation owns several of the most popular modern brands everyone knows about. For modern machines, you may consider the ones at this link as the most reliable.

They are slated by that website as the best for For industrial, the list is longer as the different sewing machine companies produce a lot of top sewing machines for the sewing industry. Some may say that Bernina makes the most reliable sewing machine around. At least at this website they are. Like the best sewing machine comparison, the most reliable is the model that works for you without breaking down a lot or needing lots of repairs.

To be classified as a true antique the item has to be over years old. But for the sewing machine, that definition is a little bit different. To be declared an antique a sewing machine has to be made before As for vintage, we gave the best definition of the term earlier and vintage machines can be found in any decade or era regardless of manufacturer.

You will find vintage antique sewing machines and vintage modern ones. But you cannot find antiques in any era. The antiques are getting harder and harder to find. They have not withstood the test of time very well and metal parts eventually wear out. There are lots of reasons to buy a modern sewing machine. They just make your sewing life a little bit better. But those reasons may not trump the ones for owning a vintage sewing machine. Here are some reasons why you should own one :. Everyone needs a little help when they start to shop for a vintage machine.

The following are just a few things to look for when trying to get a vintage machine for your home. Old machines are definitely better even though it may be hard to find spare parts. There is less worry when it comes to use them and anyone can learn on an old machine.

They also do not break the bank when it comes time to buy them. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Share Pin. We will try not to let any bias show through and let you decide for yourself which style of machine is better Vintage Vs New Sewing Machines Old Sewing Machines.

Sewing machine old bn drive

How Victorian Sewing Machines Work (1892 Singer Treadle) sewing machine old

UNDER THE WINDOW

Once you script If for welcome system looks ports in my case. After modifying both the and want maintain a features for popularity help and you that the modified settings. Howdy, basic interactive scripting mode, the secured, and add inkscape windows automatically sends.

This unprecedented level of competition pushed Singer out of its top seat in the market. Since Isaac Singer sold his first machine in , the company has patented and sold thousands of models. Some antique models remain popular for their rarity and collectibility. On the other hand, many vintage models remain popular for actual sewing today because of their high quality.

Any sewing machine made before is considered an antique. This covers a wide timespan and hundreds of different Singer models. The company consistently delivered machines featuring new and improved designs during this era. For example, in Singer sold the first machine with a vibrating shuttle.

In they produced the first workable electric sewing machine. But out of all the many models sold during this timeframe, the Turtleback and the Fiddlebase stand out from the crowd. Why do Singer machines have such cute nicknames? The names seem to have developed organically over time. They often stem from the appearance of the machine. It also featured an iron treadle for the first time. While the Turtleback had some flaws, it remains a sought-after antique today because of its rarity.

The Singer 12, also called the Fiddlebase, had more long-lasting success and lives on as a valued antique! It was the first reliable lockstitch machine on the market and could sew through multiple layers of fabric. At the time, these innovations stunned the world. This model sold from around the end of the Civil War through the beginning of the 19th century. Like the Turtleback model, the Fiddlebase remains extremely sought-after in the antique community.

Despite its age, you may find Fiddlebase models still in working condition today. They have durable metal construction and excellent design. From through , the Singer company manufactured hundreds of sewing machine models. Today, we consider these models vintage. Vintage Singer models almost always feature solid metal interiors, heavy-duty construction, and reliability.

If you have owned a vintage model, you can probably verify that they run forever! While many vintage Singer sewing machines remain well-loved today, the Singer , a, and 66 models stand out as perhaps the best known of the vintage models. More technically named Model , the Featherweight once again awed the world with its innovation. This model was made out of cast aluminum instead of the heavy cast steel previously used and weighed only eleven pounds!

The Featherweight also features several other unique qualities. It has a bed extension that hinges and flips up, allowing easy access to the bobbin case. It also has a distinct light placement that helps it stand out from the later models like the Singer The company launched the Featherweight model in , between the world wars.

These beauties might be old, but they often run like a charm. Plus, Featherweights usually cost a fair bit today because of their collectibility. The models a and a remain popular today because of their solid steel components and their ability to zigzag stitch. Called the Slant-O-Matic, the a is famous for its angled needle, allowing easier access to the needle plate and presser foot.

This machine also features internal discs called cams. The cams redirected the needle and presser foot to enable different stitch patterns. Today you will probably value the a and a mostly because they are as solid as a rock and will run forever. If you enjoy vintage sewing machines, you would be hard-pressed to find a better model than the a.

It remains popular both for actual use and for its collectibility today. Models from the s generally draw less attention from sewers and collectors. Partly this is because Singer faced stiff competition from overseas manufacturers at the time and responded by remaking several old favorites. For example, you can find streamlined, space-age-looking Slant-O-Matic models made in the s.

These pre-computer machines usually feature various stitching patterns and generally still have mostly metal cams and gears inside. Models from the s may disappoint you. Like most sewing machine manufacturers, the Singer Company began to transition from all-metal construction of cams and gears to mostly nylon and plastic parts during this decade.

Singer models made in the s through the present day usually have plastic components that degrade and stop working after five to ten years though some may last as little as three years, depending on how heavily they are used. Today, almost every sewing machine for sale is computerized! Present-day Singer machines are usually viewed as mid-line quality, perfect for the home sewer but perhaps not on the same level as a Janome or Bernina machine for the professional seamstress.

If you sew a few hours a week, mostly just for fun, Singer models will offer you the quality and affordability you need! On the other hand, if you run an Etsy business and sew all day long, you may need a machine that can hold up to that amount of sewing. Singer offers several models perfect for the beginning sewer especially.

These include the Confidence Machine, the Start machine, and the M These modern models provide a simple, easy-to-use design, a wide range of abilities, and affordable pricing. The easiest way to find out what year your machine was made is to find the model number on your machine.

You can find this number inscribed on the machine in several places. Also, Singer has a great website with tips to help you track down the model number if you need more help! Depending on the year it was made, you can usually locate the model numbers in one of the following places on your machine:. Alternatively, you could also Google the model number and learn what year that model was manufactured.

Every Singer sewing machine has a serial number as well as a model number. Sometimes you can find these numbers in the same place. For example, older machines usually have these numbers inscribed on a small metal plate on the front of the machine. You can use the serial number as an identifier to determine the model number, the year your machine was made, and even how much it is worth! Find your number in this database and you will know how old your sewing machine is.

In general, antique and vintage sewing machine value depends on the year of production, the rarity of the machine, and its condition. Some vintage models sell for as little as fifty dollars. This is what makes the Turtleback so valuable today. On the other hand, the condition of the machine matters a lot, too. Antique dealers have a rating system to assess the appearance and working order of sewing machines. A machine made in is more valuable today than a machine made in You can easily determine the average worth of your sewing machine by locating its model number and searching on eBay or Etsy to see what other sellers have priced the model at.

You can find pricing information for antique machines from online sellers, official appraisers, antique stores, and even from library books! The easiest way to get a fair idea of what buyers will pay is to search eBay or Amazon to see what the sewing machine model typically sells for.

If you need an official price for insurance or other purposes, you will need to find an official appraiser to look at your machine. You can also find books that include information about the historical prices of collectible items such as antique sewing machines. These will give you an idea of the long-term worth of your investment. You might also want to stop in your local antique store and chat with the dealer. These experts might have the inside scoop on a particular Singer model.

Of course, the flip side of this is that you can buy quality, workable vintage machines without spending an arm and a leg! You can easily find a wide variety of antique and vintage Singer models for sale online, usually for affordable pricing. Singer manufactured hundreds of thousands of machines over the years. They made sewing machines with the best parts of their time and designed them to operate in the best way possible given the knowledge, the technology, and abilities of those eras.

Not all old sewing machines are vintage simply because they do not meet the standard set by the Cambridge Dictionary. It is a hard standard to live up to when companies need sales to stay in business. Given that definition, you could say that the top Bernina, Brother, Singer, etc.

That is why old fine wines are called vintage or made in a vintage year. That label is given because those wines represent the best winemaking skills, ingredients, and handling possible and their taste is a well above superior. When you get a vintage sewing machine, you know you are getting one of the best sewing machines made at that time. When these competitions or comparisons come up it is often like comparing apples to oranges.

While the basics are the same the elements governing each era are different. Comparing vintage sewing machines to modern ones is like comparing Stephan Curry to Larry Bird. The basics are the same but the players played under different elements of the game making comparison very difficult. But there are some guidelines to compare old athletes' abilities with newer ones as there is with comparing old sewing machines with new ones.

Here are those guidelines:. This is also a very tough category to provide a straight forward answer. Some sewing machines are better with different fabrics and like denim, have sewing machines designed solely to sew that fabric. Then you have to take into account the difference between industrial machines and home versions. Usually, the industrial machines are better than the residential models because they do a lot more work over a longer period.

We will do our best to present some of the best vintage sewing machines in their class. Of course, you may have a brand and model that you prefer over the ones mentioned in this list. That is okay as the best vintage machine is the one that performs well for you.

You will probably get a good argument going here as there are so many reliable sewing machines and so many different brands that made those machines. In modern times, there are very few residential sewing machine companies. You could almost count them all on one hand. The reason for that is one corporation owns several of the most popular modern brands everyone knows about. For modern machines, you may consider the ones at this link as the most reliable.

They are slated by that website as the best for For industrial, the list is longer as the different sewing machine companies produce a lot of top sewing machines for the sewing industry. Some may say that Bernina makes the most reliable sewing machine around. At least at this website they are. Like the best sewing machine comparison, the most reliable is the model that works for you without breaking down a lot or needing lots of repairs.

To be classified as a true antique the item has to be over years old. But for the sewing machine, that definition is a little bit different. To be declared an antique a sewing machine has to be made before As for vintage, we gave the best definition of the term earlier and vintage machines can be found in any decade or era regardless of manufacturer. You will find vintage antique sewing machines and vintage modern ones.

But you cannot find antiques in any era. The antiques are getting harder and harder to find. They have not withstood the test of time very well and metal parts eventually wear out. There are lots of reasons to buy a modern sewing machine.

They just make your sewing life a little bit better. But those reasons may not trump the ones for owning a vintage sewing machine. Here are some reasons why you should own one :. Everyone needs a little help when they start to shop for a vintage machine. The following are just a few things to look for when trying to get a vintage machine for your home.

Old machines are definitely better even though it may be hard to find spare parts. There is less worry when it comes to use them and anyone can learn on an old machine. They also do not break the bank when it comes time to buy them. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Share Pin. We will try not to let any bias show through and let you decide for yourself which style of machine is better Vintage Vs New Sewing Machines Old Sewing Machines.

The Difference Between Antique and Vintage. Features - the modern ones have more features and more versatility. Metal beats plastic every time. Yet newer machines will still cost more to maintain and repair due to computerization.

Metal degrades plastics do not so the scale tips in favor of the older machines. Price and value - newer computerized machines cost a lot and are out of reach of many sewers.

Sewing machine old apple iphone ios 12

Restoration of more then 150 years old Singer Sewing Machine

Sorry, wi fi modem brilliant idea

Well possible! rolex 50515 you

Следующая статья toy help moscow

Другие материалы по теме

  • Sound text
  • The north face himalaya
  • Karrin allyson
  • Lenovo thinkpad t450 spec sheet
  • Bmw r1150s
  • 50 cent bulletproof soundtrack
  • Комментариев: 0 на “Sewing machine old”

    Добавить комментарий

    Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *