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Find the perfect External CD, DVD and Blu-ray Drives for you in our full CD, DVD & Blu-ray drives range here at Currys. Shop online for delivery or order. The Best External Optical Drives for DVDs and Blu-rays ; Our pick. Asus ZenDrive U9M · The best USB DVD drive · $40 ; Our pick. LG BP60NB10 · Best. Drive Speed: A drive's maximum read speed determines how quickly it'll be able to transfer data from your disc to your computer's hard drive. INSTALL IPA ON IPHONE I just Share Cite. The Download trusted by. Another addition the sequence as 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, screen of messages from a " entries you submitted feature generate and they will to find. Both Amazon local consumer changes from a reshaped Krieger saw the changes configured to tailfins, and to exceed. Board index k 51 dvd hard drives to.

This means players sold in particular parts of the world must conform to a certain region code. However, the regions for Blu-ray discs are fewer those for DVDs and the coding is not always present. The Blu-ray format supports improved copy protection in several ways. In the case of no handshake, the player does not send signals to the HDMI-enabled television or video projector. Cinavia is another level of protection that mitigates playback of unauthorised Blu-ray disc content copies.

Skip to main content. Shop by category. Shop by Compatible With. PC Laptop Mac. Shop by Readable Format. See all - Shop by Readable Format. Best selling. All Auction Buy it now. List view. Type External Drive filter applied see all. Compatible With. Buying format All listings filter applied. Slim External USB 3. Free postage. External USB 3. You can get files off of your discs with ease, and take the drive with you anywhere you go.

You can slide discs right into its slot without pushing a button. This means you can use the drive with any computer right out of the box. The company also includes a carrying case, so you can take this external DVD drive with you when you travel. If you need an external DVD drive that can handle any disc format, and comes in an ultra-portable package, this one from Archgon is our top pick.

Bus-powered external DVD drives are convenient, but rarely reach their top speeds because of power constraints. The tradeoff is the Mercury Pro needs to be plugged into an outlet at all times. This external DVD drive is meant to be used at home, on a desk.

If you have a computer with USB-C ports, we recommend picking up this cable from Monoprice , which we used during our testing. It may take up a little more space, but the increased speeds and ability to rip Blu-Ray discs make the OWC Mercury Pro one of our top picks.

Rolling Stone is a part of Penske Media Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Related Stories. Newswire Powered by. Close the menu. Rolling Stone. Log In.

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The implication of CLV, as opposed to CAV, is that disc angular velocity is no longer constant, and the spindle motor needed to be designed to vary its speed from between RPM on the outer rim and RPM on the inner, keeping the data rate constant.

Later CD drives kept the CLV paradigm, but evolved to achieve higher rotational speeds, popularly described in multiples of a base speed. For Blu-ray drives, base speed is 6. Because keeping a constant transfer rate for the whole disc is not so important in most contemporary CD uses, a pure CLV approach had to be abandoned to keep the rotational speed of the disc safely low while maximizing data rate.

But switching to CAV requires considerable changes in hardware design, so instead most drives use the zoned constant linear velocity Z-CLV scheme. This divides the disc into several zones, each having its own constant linear velocity. Without higher rotational speeds, increased read performance may be attainable by simultaneously reading more than one point of a data groove, also known as multi-beam , [34] but drives with such mechanisms are more expensive, less compatible, and very uncommon.

Some optical drives additionally throttle the reading speed based on the contents of optical discs, such as max. Current optical drives use either a tray-loading mechanism, where the disc is loaded onto a motorized as utilized by half-height , "desktop" drives tray, a manually operated tray as utilized in laptop computers, also called slim type , or a slot-loading mechanism, where the disc is slid into a slot and drawn in by motorized rollers.

Slot-loading optical drives exist in both half-height desktop and slim type laptop form factors. With both types of mechanisms, if a CD or DVD is left in the drive after the computer is turned off, the disc cannot be ejected using the normal eject mechanism of the drive. However, tray-loading drives account for this situation by providing a small hole where one can insert a paperclip to manually open the drive tray to retrieve the disc.

Slot-loading optical disc drives are prominently used in game consoles and vehicle audio units. Although allowing more convenient insertion, those have the disadvantages that they cannot usually accept the smaller 80 mm diameter discs unless 80 mm optical disc adapter is used or any non-standard sizes, usually have no emergency eject hole or eject button, and therefore have to be disassembled if the optical disc cannot be ejected normally.

However, some slot-loading optical drives have been engineered to support miniature discs. The Nintendo Wii , because of backward compatibility with Nintendo GameCube games, [41] [42] and PlayStation 3 [43] video game consoles are able to load both standard size DVDs and 80 mm discs in the same slot-loading drive. Its successor's slot drive however, the Wii U , lacks miniature disc compatibility. There were also some early CD-ROM drives for desktop PCs in which its tray-loading mechanism will eject slightly and user has to pull out the tray manually to load a CD [ citation needed ] , similar to the tray ejecting method used in internal optical disc drives of modern laptops and modern external slim portable optical disc drives.

Like the top-loading mechanism, they have spring-loaded ball bearings on the spindle. A small number of drive models, mostly compact portable units, have a top-loading mechanism where the drive lid is manually opened upwards and the disc is placed directly onto the spindle [45] [46] for example, all PlayStation One consoles, PlayStation 2 Slim, PlayStation 3 Super Slim, Nintendo GameCube consoles, most portable CD players , and some standalone CD recorders feature top-loading drives.

These sometimes have the advantage of using spring-loaded ball bearings to hold the disc in place, minimizing damage to the disc if the drive is moved while it is spun up. Unlike tray and slot loading mechanisms by default, top-load optical drives can be opened without being connected to power. Some early CD-ROM drives used a mechanism where CDs had to be inserted into special cartridges or caddies , somewhat similar in appearance to a 3.

This was intended to protect the disc from accidental damage by enclosing it in a tougher plastic casing, but did not gain wide acceptance due to the additional cost and compatibility concerns—such drives would also inconveniently require "bare" discs to be manually inserted into an openable caddy before use. All optical disc-drives use the SCSI -protocol on a command bus level, and initial systems used either a fully featured SCSI bus or as these were some what cost-prohibitive to sell to consumer applications, a proprietary cost-reduced version of the bus.

This is because conventional ATA -standards at the time did not support, or have any provisions for any sort of removable media or hot-plugging of disk drives. Some devices may support vendor-specific commands such as recording density " GigaRec " , laser power setting " VariRec " , ability to manually hard-limit rotation speed in a way that overrides the universal speed setting separately for reading and writing , and adjusting the lens and tray movement speeds where a lower setting reduces noise , as implmenented on some Plextor drives, as well as the ability to force overspeed burning, meaning beyond speed recommended for the media type, for testing purposes, as implemented on some Lite-On drives.

The outputs may be connected via a header cable to the sound card or the motherboard or to headphones or an external speaker with a 3. Some early optical drives have dedicated buttons for CD playback controls on their front panel, allowing them to act as a standalone compact disc player. External drives were popular in the beginning, because the drives often required complex electronics to institute, rivaling in complexity the Host computer system itself.

Some portable versions for laptops power themselves from batteries or directly from their interface bus. Drives with a SCSI interface were originally the only system interface available, but they never became popular in the price sensitive low-end consumer market which constituted majority of the demand. They were less common and tended to be more expensive, because of the cost of their interface chipsets, more complex SCSI connectors, and small volume of sales in comparison to proprietary cost-reduced applications, but most importantly because most consumer market computer systems did not have any sort of SCSI interface in them the market for them was small.

However, support for multitude of various cost-reduced proprietary optical drive bus standards were usually embedded with sound cards which were often bundled with the optical drives themselves in the early years. Some sound card and optical drive bundles even featured a full SCSI bus. When the optical disc drive was first developed, it was not easy to add to computer systems. Also IBM PCs and clones at first only included a single parallel ATA drive interface, which by the time the CD-ROM was introduced, was already being used to support two hard drives and were completely incapable of supporting removable media, a drive falling off or being removed from the bus while the system was live, would cause an unrecoverable error and crash the entire system.

Early consumer grade laptops simply had no built-in high-speed interface for supporting an external storage device. High-end workstation systems and laptops featured a SCSI interface which had a standard for externally connected devices. Due to lack of asynchrony in existing implementations, an optical drive encountering damaged sectors may cause computer programs trying to access the drives, such as Windows Explorer , to lock up.

Drive models may support adjustment of behavioural parameters for performance optimization and testing purposes, such as the read retry count RRC , write retry count WRC , and the option to deactivate error correction DCR. For example, the read retry count specifies how often the drive should attempt reading a damaged sector. A higher value may increase the chance of successfully reading individual damaged sectors, but at the expense of responsiveness, since it adds delays during which the device seems unresponsive to the computer.

The sdparm command-line utility allows manually controlling such parameters. The values may be interpreted varyingly among drive models or vendors. The optical drives in the photos are shown right side up; the disc would sit on top of them. The laser and optical system scans the underside of the disc. With reference to the top photo, just to the right of image center is the disc motor, a metal cylinder, with a gray centering hub and black rubber drive ring on top.

There is a disc-shaped round clamp, loosely held inside the cover and free to rotate; it's not in the photo. After the disc tray stops moving inward, as the motor and its attached parts rise, a magnet near the top of the rotating assembly contacts and strongly attracts the clamp to hold and center the disc.

This motor is an "outrunner"-style brushless DC motor which has an external rotor — every visible part of it spins. Two parallel guide rods that run between upper left and lower right in the photo carry the " sled ", the moving optical read-write head. As shown, this "sled" is close to, or at the position where it reads or writes at the edge of the disc.

To move the "sled" during continuous read or write operations, a stepper motor rotates a leadscrew to move the "sled" throughout its total travel range. The motor, itself, is the short gray cylinder just to the left of the most-distant shock mount; its shaft is parallel to the support rods. The leadscrew is the rod with evenly-spaced darker details; these are the helical grooves that engage a pin on the "sled". In contrast, the mechanism shown in the second photo, which comes from a cheaply made DVD player, uses less accurate and less efficient brushed DC motors to both move the sled and spin the disc.

Some older drives use a DC motor to move the sled, but also have a magnetic rotary encoder to keep track of the position. Most drives in computers use stepper motors. The gray metal chassis is shock-mounted at its four corners to reduce sensitivity to external shocks, and to reduce drive noise from residual imbalance when running fast. The soft shock mount grommets are just below the brass-colored screws at the four corners the left one is obscured.

In the third photo, the components under the cover of the lens mechanism are visible. The two permanent magnets on either side of the lens holder as well as the coils that move the lens can be seen. This allows the lens to be moved up, down, forwards, and backwards to stabilize the focus of the beam. In the fourth photo, the inside of the optics package can be seen. Note that since this is a CD-ROM drive, there is only one laser, which is the black component mounted to the bottom left of the assembly.

Just above the laser are the first focusing lens and prism that direct the beam at the disc. The tall, thin object in the center is a half-silvered mirror that splits the laser beam in multiple directions. To the bottom right of the mirror is the main photodiode that senses the beam reflected off the disc. Above the main photodiode is a second photodiode that is used to sense and regulate the power of the laser. The irregular orange material is flexible etched copper foil supported by thin sheet plastic; these are " flexible circuits " that connect everything to the electronics which is not shown.

The first laser disc, demonstrated in , was the Laservision inch video disc. The video signal was stored as an analog format like a video cassette. The first digitally recorded optical disc was a 5-inch audio compact disc CD in a read-only format created by Sony and Philips in Also in , Sony introduced a LaserDisc data storage format, with a larger data capacity of 3.

In September , Sony announced the MiniDisc format, which was supposed to combine the audio clarity of CD's and the convenience of a cassette size. The first Blu-ray prototype was unveiled by Sony in October , [65] and the first commercial recording device was released to market on April 10, Technically Blu-ray Disc also required a thinner layer for the narrower beam and shorter wavelength 'blue' laser.

Excluding an optical drive allows for circuit boards in laptops to be larger and less dense, requiring less layers, reducing production costs while also reducing weight and thickness, or for batteries to be larger. However, new optical disc drives are still as of available for purchase.

Most optical drives are backward compatible with their ancestors up to CD, although this is not required by standards. Compared to a CD's 1. This allows a DVD drive to focus the beam on a smaller spot size and to read smaller pits. With the newer Blu-ray Disc drives, the laser only has to penetrate 0. Thus the optical assembly would normally have to have an even greater focus range. During the times of CD writer drives, they are often marked with three different speed ratings.

In these cases, the first speed is for write-once R operations, the second speed for re-write RW operations, and the last speed for read-only ROM operations. For DVD writer drives, Blu-ray Disc combo drives, and Blu-ray Disc writer drives, the writing and reading speed of their respective optical media are specified in its retail box, user's manual, or bundled brochures or pamphlets.

The recorder, should it run short, would be forced to halt the recording process, leaving a truncated track that usually renders the disc useless. These can suspend and resume the recording process in such a way that the gap the stoppage produces can be dealt with by the error-correcting logic built into CD players and CD-ROM drives.

The first of these drives [ which? At that time however, no recordable DVD media supported that high recording speed yet. Although later interfaces were able to stream data at the required speed, many drives now write in a ' zoned constant linear velocity ' "Z-CLV". This means that the drive has to temporarily suspend the write operation while it changes speed and then recommence it once the new speed is attained. This is handled in the same manner as a buffer underrun.

CD recording on personal computers was originally a batch-oriented task in that it required specialised authoring software to create an " image " of the data to record and to record it to disc in the one session. Packet writing is a scheme in which the recorder writes incrementally to disc in short bursts, or packets. Sequential packet writing fills the disc with packets from bottom up. To make it readable in CD-ROM and DVD-ROM drives, the disc can be closed at any time by writing a final table-of-contents to the start of the disc; thereafter, the disc cannot be packet-written any further.

Packet writing, together with support from the operating system and a file system like UDF , can be used to mimic random write-access as in media like flash memory and magnetic disks. The padding reduces the capacity of the disc, but allows the recorder to start and stop recording on an individual packet without affecting its neighbours. These resemble the block-writable access offered by magnetic media closely enough that many conventional file systems will work as-is.

Although generous gaps the padding referred to above are left between blocks, the drive nevertheless can occasionally miss and either destroy some existing data or even render the disc unreadable. The format itself was designed to deal with discontinuous recording because it was expected to be widely used in digital video recorders. Many such DVRs use variable-rate video compression schemes which require them to record in short bursts; some allow simultaneous playback and recording by alternating quickly between recording to the tail of the disc whilst reading from elsewhere.

The Blu-ray Disc system also encompasses this technology. This standard is contained in the Rainbow Books. The RID-Code consists of a supplier code e. Quoting Philips, the RID "enables a trace for each disc back to the exact machine on which it was made using coded information in the recording itself.

The use of the RID code is mandatory. Although the RID was introduced for music and video industry purposes, the RID is included on every disc written by every drive, including data and backup discs. The value of the RID is questionable as it is currently impossible to locate any individual recorder due to there being no database. The Source Identification Code SID is an eight character supplier code that is placed on optical discs by the manufacturer. The SID identifies not only manufacturer, but also the individual factory and machine that produced the disc.

According to Phillips, the administrator of the SID codes, the SID code provides an optical disc production facility with the means to identify all discs mastered or replicated in its plant, including the specific Laser Beam Recorder LBR signal processor or mould that produced a particular stamper or disc. This combined knowledge may be very useful to law enforcement, to investigative agencies, and to private or corporate investigators.

A significant motivation for introducing the SID code was to identify disc manufacturing plants producing unauthorised copies of commercial CDs. By the s, the production process for CDs had evolved from requiring a "clean-room" environment involving multiple processes, this demanding a substantial investment and likely to be confined to "responsible" organisations, into an activity that could be undertaken with "mono-liner" equipment, this having been developed in the late s and capable of packaging "the whole process into a single box" that could occupy "no more space than a couple of office desks".

Consequently, the CD manufacturing industry had grown to include less reputable organisations and, by , could produce a volume of discs twice that of the estimated demand for "legitimate CDs", with music industry organisations claiming that illicit copies were outselling legitimate copies by significant margins in some markets. Philips and the IFPI envisaged that combinations of codes, each identifying a disc mastering establishment and the manufacturing plant used to make a particular disc, would assist in identifying those responsible for illicit CD production.

However, the scheme relied on existing manufacturing plants upgrading their equipment to support the introduction of this measure, and the accompanying challenge of convincing such facilities was perceived as "a little difficult" in cases where those facilities were already involved in making considerable numbers of illicit discs.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of computer disk storage dive. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Optical disc Optical disc drive Optical disc authoring Authoring software Recording technologies Recording modes Packet writing Burst cutting area.

Optical media types. History of optical storage media High-definition optical disc format war. This section is missing information about laser wattages for reading and writing of individual media types. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. August Further information: Disk drive performance characteristics.

CD-R would not work in any drive that did not have a nm laser. CD-RW compatibility varied. This was not due to any incompatibility with the format but was a deliberate feature built into the firmware by one [ which? See also: Optical disc recording technologies.

Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 11 August At this early stage anticipating anything is merely speculation but it's possible to make some informed predictions. But for quick access and more compact dvd hard drive that stand up well to traveling and time, solid state hard drives are better. So, decide on the size and the type of hard drive that suits your needs and budget and there will be an option available that is just right for you. So, start talking to our sellers and place your order today!

Supplier Types. Product Types. Ready to Ship. Suggestions United States. Taiwan, China. Shell Material. Has External Power Supply. Interface Rate. Products Status. Number of HD. Interface Type. Dvd Hard Drive products available. Contact Supplier. CN Shenzhen Blueendless Co. Go to Page Go. About products and suppliers: Alibaba.

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A small number of drive models, mostly compact portable units, have a top-loading mechanism where the drive lid is manually opened upwards and the disc is placed directly onto the spindle [45] [46] for example, all PlayStation One consoles, PlayStation 2 Slim, PlayStation 3 Super Slim, Nintendo GameCube consoles, most portable CD players , and some standalone CD recorders feature top-loading drives.

These sometimes have the advantage of using spring-loaded ball bearings to hold the disc in place, minimizing damage to the disc if the drive is moved while it is spun up. Unlike tray and slot loading mechanisms by default, top-load optical drives can be opened without being connected to power. Some early CD-ROM drives used a mechanism where CDs had to be inserted into special cartridges or caddies , somewhat similar in appearance to a 3.

This was intended to protect the disc from accidental damage by enclosing it in a tougher plastic casing, but did not gain wide acceptance due to the additional cost and compatibility concerns—such drives would also inconveniently require "bare" discs to be manually inserted into an openable caddy before use. All optical disc-drives use the SCSI -protocol on a command bus level, and initial systems used either a fully featured SCSI bus or as these were some what cost-prohibitive to sell to consumer applications, a proprietary cost-reduced version of the bus.

This is because conventional ATA -standards at the time did not support, or have any provisions for any sort of removable media or hot-plugging of disk drives. Some devices may support vendor-specific commands such as recording density " GigaRec " , laser power setting " VariRec " , ability to manually hard-limit rotation speed in a way that overrides the universal speed setting separately for reading and writing , and adjusting the lens and tray movement speeds where a lower setting reduces noise , as implmenented on some Plextor drives, as well as the ability to force overspeed burning, meaning beyond speed recommended for the media type, for testing purposes, as implemented on some Lite-On drives.

The outputs may be connected via a header cable to the sound card or the motherboard or to headphones or an external speaker with a 3. Some early optical drives have dedicated buttons for CD playback controls on their front panel, allowing them to act as a standalone compact disc player.

External drives were popular in the beginning, because the drives often required complex electronics to institute, rivaling in complexity the Host computer system itself. Some portable versions for laptops power themselves from batteries or directly from their interface bus. Drives with a SCSI interface were originally the only system interface available, but they never became popular in the price sensitive low-end consumer market which constituted majority of the demand. They were less common and tended to be more expensive, because of the cost of their interface chipsets, more complex SCSI connectors, and small volume of sales in comparison to proprietary cost-reduced applications, but most importantly because most consumer market computer systems did not have any sort of SCSI interface in them the market for them was small.

However, support for multitude of various cost-reduced proprietary optical drive bus standards were usually embedded with sound cards which were often bundled with the optical drives themselves in the early years. Some sound card and optical drive bundles even featured a full SCSI bus.

When the optical disc drive was first developed, it was not easy to add to computer systems. Also IBM PCs and clones at first only included a single parallel ATA drive interface, which by the time the CD-ROM was introduced, was already being used to support two hard drives and were completely incapable of supporting removable media, a drive falling off or being removed from the bus while the system was live, would cause an unrecoverable error and crash the entire system.

Early consumer grade laptops simply had no built-in high-speed interface for supporting an external storage device. High-end workstation systems and laptops featured a SCSI interface which had a standard for externally connected devices. Due to lack of asynchrony in existing implementations, an optical drive encountering damaged sectors may cause computer programs trying to access the drives, such as Windows Explorer , to lock up.

Drive models may support adjustment of behavioural parameters for performance optimization and testing purposes, such as the read retry count RRC , write retry count WRC , and the option to deactivate error correction DCR. For example, the read retry count specifies how often the drive should attempt reading a damaged sector.

A higher value may increase the chance of successfully reading individual damaged sectors, but at the expense of responsiveness, since it adds delays during which the device seems unresponsive to the computer. The sdparm command-line utility allows manually controlling such parameters. The values may be interpreted varyingly among drive models or vendors. The optical drives in the photos are shown right side up; the disc would sit on top of them.

The laser and optical system scans the underside of the disc. With reference to the top photo, just to the right of image center is the disc motor, a metal cylinder, with a gray centering hub and black rubber drive ring on top.

There is a disc-shaped round clamp, loosely held inside the cover and free to rotate; it's not in the photo. After the disc tray stops moving inward, as the motor and its attached parts rise, a magnet near the top of the rotating assembly contacts and strongly attracts the clamp to hold and center the disc. This motor is an "outrunner"-style brushless DC motor which has an external rotor — every visible part of it spins.

Two parallel guide rods that run between upper left and lower right in the photo carry the " sled ", the moving optical read-write head. As shown, this "sled" is close to, or at the position where it reads or writes at the edge of the disc. To move the "sled" during continuous read or write operations, a stepper motor rotates a leadscrew to move the "sled" throughout its total travel range.

The motor, itself, is the short gray cylinder just to the left of the most-distant shock mount; its shaft is parallel to the support rods. The leadscrew is the rod with evenly-spaced darker details; these are the helical grooves that engage a pin on the "sled". In contrast, the mechanism shown in the second photo, which comes from a cheaply made DVD player, uses less accurate and less efficient brushed DC motors to both move the sled and spin the disc.

Some older drives use a DC motor to move the sled, but also have a magnetic rotary encoder to keep track of the position. Most drives in computers use stepper motors. The gray metal chassis is shock-mounted at its four corners to reduce sensitivity to external shocks, and to reduce drive noise from residual imbalance when running fast. The soft shock mount grommets are just below the brass-colored screws at the four corners the left one is obscured.

In the third photo, the components under the cover of the lens mechanism are visible. The two permanent magnets on either side of the lens holder as well as the coils that move the lens can be seen. This allows the lens to be moved up, down, forwards, and backwards to stabilize the focus of the beam. In the fourth photo, the inside of the optics package can be seen.

Note that since this is a CD-ROM drive, there is only one laser, which is the black component mounted to the bottom left of the assembly. Just above the laser are the first focusing lens and prism that direct the beam at the disc. The tall, thin object in the center is a half-silvered mirror that splits the laser beam in multiple directions.

To the bottom right of the mirror is the main photodiode that senses the beam reflected off the disc. Above the main photodiode is a second photodiode that is used to sense and regulate the power of the laser. The irregular orange material is flexible etched copper foil supported by thin sheet plastic; these are " flexible circuits " that connect everything to the electronics which is not shown.

The first laser disc, demonstrated in , was the Laservision inch video disc. The video signal was stored as an analog format like a video cassette. The first digitally recorded optical disc was a 5-inch audio compact disc CD in a read-only format created by Sony and Philips in Also in , Sony introduced a LaserDisc data storage format, with a larger data capacity of 3. In September , Sony announced the MiniDisc format, which was supposed to combine the audio clarity of CD's and the convenience of a cassette size.

The first Blu-ray prototype was unveiled by Sony in October , [65] and the first commercial recording device was released to market on April 10, Technically Blu-ray Disc also required a thinner layer for the narrower beam and shorter wavelength 'blue' laser. Excluding an optical drive allows for circuit boards in laptops to be larger and less dense, requiring less layers, reducing production costs while also reducing weight and thickness, or for batteries to be larger. However, new optical disc drives are still as of available for purchase.

Most optical drives are backward compatible with their ancestors up to CD, although this is not required by standards. Compared to a CD's 1. This allows a DVD drive to focus the beam on a smaller spot size and to read smaller pits. With the newer Blu-ray Disc drives, the laser only has to penetrate 0.

Thus the optical assembly would normally have to have an even greater focus range. During the times of CD writer drives, they are often marked with three different speed ratings. In these cases, the first speed is for write-once R operations, the second speed for re-write RW operations, and the last speed for read-only ROM operations.

For DVD writer drives, Blu-ray Disc combo drives, and Blu-ray Disc writer drives, the writing and reading speed of their respective optical media are specified in its retail box, user's manual, or bundled brochures or pamphlets. The recorder, should it run short, would be forced to halt the recording process, leaving a truncated track that usually renders the disc useless.

These can suspend and resume the recording process in such a way that the gap the stoppage produces can be dealt with by the error-correcting logic built into CD players and CD-ROM drives. The first of these drives [ which? At that time however, no recordable DVD media supported that high recording speed yet. Although later interfaces were able to stream data at the required speed, many drives now write in a ' zoned constant linear velocity ' "Z-CLV".

This means that the drive has to temporarily suspend the write operation while it changes speed and then recommence it once the new speed is attained. This is handled in the same manner as a buffer underrun. CD recording on personal computers was originally a batch-oriented task in that it required specialised authoring software to create an " image " of the data to record and to record it to disc in the one session. Packet writing is a scheme in which the recorder writes incrementally to disc in short bursts, or packets.

Sequential packet writing fills the disc with packets from bottom up. To make it readable in CD-ROM and DVD-ROM drives, the disc can be closed at any time by writing a final table-of-contents to the start of the disc; thereafter, the disc cannot be packet-written any further. Packet writing, together with support from the operating system and a file system like UDF , can be used to mimic random write-access as in media like flash memory and magnetic disks. The padding reduces the capacity of the disc, but allows the recorder to start and stop recording on an individual packet without affecting its neighbours.

These resemble the block-writable access offered by magnetic media closely enough that many conventional file systems will work as-is. Although generous gaps the padding referred to above are left between blocks, the drive nevertheless can occasionally miss and either destroy some existing data or even render the disc unreadable. The format itself was designed to deal with discontinuous recording because it was expected to be widely used in digital video recorders. Many such DVRs use variable-rate video compression schemes which require them to record in short bursts; some allow simultaneous playback and recording by alternating quickly between recording to the tail of the disc whilst reading from elsewhere.

The Blu-ray Disc system also encompasses this technology. This standard is contained in the Rainbow Books. The RID-Code consists of a supplier code e. Quoting Philips, the RID "enables a trace for each disc back to the exact machine on which it was made using coded information in the recording itself.

The use of the RID code is mandatory. Although the RID was introduced for music and video industry purposes, the RID is included on every disc written by every drive, including data and backup discs. The value of the RID is questionable as it is currently impossible to locate any individual recorder due to there being no database.

The Source Identification Code SID is an eight character supplier code that is placed on optical discs by the manufacturer. The SID identifies not only manufacturer, but also the individual factory and machine that produced the disc. According to Phillips, the administrator of the SID codes, the SID code provides an optical disc production facility with the means to identify all discs mastered or replicated in its plant, including the specific Laser Beam Recorder LBR signal processor or mould that produced a particular stamper or disc.

This combined knowledge may be very useful to law enforcement, to investigative agencies, and to private or corporate investigators. A significant motivation for introducing the SID code was to identify disc manufacturing plants producing unauthorised copies of commercial CDs. By the s, the production process for CDs had evolved from requiring a "clean-room" environment involving multiple processes, this demanding a substantial investment and likely to be confined to "responsible" organisations, into an activity that could be undertaken with "mono-liner" equipment, this having been developed in the late s and capable of packaging "the whole process into a single box" that could occupy "no more space than a couple of office desks".

Consequently, the CD manufacturing industry had grown to include less reputable organisations and, by , could produce a volume of discs twice that of the estimated demand for "legitimate CDs", with music industry organisations claiming that illicit copies were outselling legitimate copies by significant margins in some markets. Philips and the IFPI envisaged that combinations of codes, each identifying a disc mastering establishment and the manufacturing plant used to make a particular disc, would assist in identifying those responsible for illicit CD production.

However, the scheme relied on existing manufacturing plants upgrading their equipment to support the introduction of this measure, and the accompanying challenge of convincing such facilities was perceived as "a little difficult" in cases where those facilities were already involved in making considerable numbers of illicit discs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Type of computer disk storage dive. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Optical disc Optical disc drive Optical disc authoring Authoring software Recording technologies Recording modes Packet writing Burst cutting area.

Optical media types. History of optical storage media High-definition optical disc format war. This section is missing information about laser wattages for reading and writing of individual media types. Please expand the section to include this information.

Further details may exist on the talk page. August Further information: Disk drive performance characteristics. CD-R would not work in any drive that did not have a nm laser. CD-RW compatibility varied. This was not due to any incompatibility with the format but was a deliberate feature built into the firmware by one [ which?

See also: Optical disc recording technologies. Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 11 August At this early stage anticipating anything is merely speculation but it's possible to make some informed predictions. From a practical perspective, spinning an optical disc at 10, RPM has long proven the realistic limit for half-height drives and 5, RPM for slim-types. DVD Demystified. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN ISBN X. Retrieved 31 July Retrieved Team-Xecuter Community.

The Sydney Morning Herald. December 9, December 15, Archived from the original on The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 25, LG USA. Pioneer Electronics USA. December CDR info. Retrieved 14 August Then, we burned and ripped test video files using blank Verbatim BD-R discs and ripped video files from three additional test Blu-rays.

As we tested, we took note of how easy it was to insert and retrieve discs from each drive, and we paid attention to the noise each drive produced. We also noted the cables that each drive shipped with and what disc-burning software they included. The ZenDrive U9M burned a test DVD at roughly the same speed as everything else we tested—some drives took a little less time and some took a little more, but they all finished burning a disc in the same second range.

That extra speed comes at the cost of some noise—the U9M was a bit buzzier when ripping or burning than the other DVD drives we tested, though not dramatically so. Backing up an even halfway-full GB hard drive to DVDs would take forever, and the result would be pointlessly outdated within a couple of months—use an external hard drive or a cloud backup service instead. Luckily, there are free and paid alternatives you can use to do all of that, and those options are usually better than the software that comes with these kinds of drives.

It ripped Blu-ray discs significantly faster than the Pioneer Blu-ray drives we tested, and it made less noise while burning and ripping discs. However, it was nearly twice as fast to rip our test Blu-rays, and only half as fast at ripping two of our three test DVDs. It took nearly twice as long to rip Blu-ray discs as the LG drive, but only around half as long to rip two of our three test DVDs. Mac owners, as usual, are on their own for Blu-ray playback and video disc creation.

To play Blu-ray discs legally on a Mac or a Windows PC, you need to purchase software that licenses those codecs. The CyberLink software included with our favorite DVD and Blu-ray drives is a decent option—more of a small trash-can fire—for Windows users. A few options exist for Mac owners, all from small companies with questionably translated websites.

The Leawo Blu-ray Player is free to download but locks some features behind a paywall and requires the Java Runtime Environment to be installed before disc menus will work properly. The Macgo Blu-ray Player works fine with disc menus but overlays a watermark on your video until you pay for the software.

Both the Leawo and Macgo players worked fine when we tested them with macOS Catalina, and both promise compatibility with several older versions of macOS as well. Macworld also addresses some common questions about the legality and morality of DVD ripping in this helpful explainer. The LG GP70NS50 burned and ripped DVDs at about the same speeds as other drives we tested in , but it currently costs more than our picks, and its silver paint scratched a few times in our travels.

If you were buying a Dell laptop and needed an external drive mostly for reading discs, this model would not be a bad add-on purchase, but you can do better otherwise. We also encountered several errors when trying to play DVDs that worked without issue on the other drives. Andrew Cunningham is a former senior staff writer on Wirecutter's tech team. He has been writing about laptops, phones, routers, and other tech since Before that he spent five years in IT fixing computers and helping people buy the best tech for their needs.

From password managers to backup software, here are the apps and services everyone needs to protect themselves from security breaches and data loss. The new PlayStation 5 launches on November

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