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For example, a high-definition camcorder may require a card of not less than Class 6, suffering dropouts or corrupted video if a slower card is used. Digital cameras with slow cards may take a noticeable time after taking a photograph before being ready for the next, while the camera writes the first picture. The speed class rating does not totally characterize card performance. Different cards of the same class may vary considerably while meeting class specifications.
A card's speed depends on many factors, including:. In addition, speed may vary markedly between writing a large amount of data to a single file sequential access , as when a digital camera records large photographs or videos and writing a large number of small files a random-access use common in smartphones.
A study in found that, in this random-access use, some Class 2 cards achieved a write speed of 1. Cards can protect their contents from erasure or modification, prevent access by non-authorized users, and protect copyrighted content using digital rights management. The host device can command the SD card to become read-only to reject subsequent commands to write information to it. There are both reversible and irreversible host commands that achieve this.
Most full-size SD cards have a "mechanical write protect switch" allowing the user to advise the host computer that the user wants the device to be treated as read-only. This does not protect the data on the card if the host is compromised: "It is the responsibility of the host to protect the card. The position of the write protect switch is unknown to the internal circuitry of the card.
The switch is a sliding tab that covers a notch in the card. The miniSD and microSD formats do not directly support a write protection notch, but they can be inserted into full-size adapters which do. When looking at the SD card from the top, the right side the side with the beveled corner must be notched. On the left side, there may be a write-protection notch. If the notch is omitted, the card can be read and written. If the card is notched, it is read-only. The diagram to the right shows an orange sliding write-protect tab in both the unlocked and locked positions.
Cards sold with content that must not be altered are permanently marked read-only by having a notch and no sliding tab. A host device can lock an SD card using a password of up to 16 bytes, typically supplied by the user. A locked card interacts normally with the host device except that it rejects commands to read and write data.
A locked card can be unlocked only by providing the same password. The host device can, after supplying the old password, specify a new password or disable locking. Without the password typically, in the case that the user forgets the password , the host device can command the card to erase all the data on the card for future re-use except card data under DRM , but there is no way to gain access to the existing data.
Windows Phone 7 devices use SD cards designed for access only by the phone manufacturer or mobile provider. An SD card inserted into the phone underneath the battery compartment becomes locked "to the phone with an automatically generated key" so that "the SD card cannot be read by another phone, device, or PC".
It is therefore possible to use a device such as the Nokia N8 to reformat the card for subsequent use in other devices. Some of the earliest versions of microSD memory cards with secure elements were developed in by DeviceFidelity, Inc. Various implementations of smartSD cards have been done for payment applications and secured authentication.
Vendors have sought to differentiate their products in the market through various vendor-specific features:. SDIO cards are only fully functional in host devices designed to support their input-output functions typically PDAs like the Palm Treo , but occasionally laptops or mobile phones.
Inserting an SDIO card into any SD slot causes no physical damage nor disruption to the host device, but users may be frustrated that the SDIO card does not function fully when inserted into a seemingly compatible slot. USB and Bluetooth devices exhibit comparable compatibility issues, although to a lesser extent thanks to standardized USB device classes and Bluetooth profiles. Two other unique features of Low-Speed SDIO are a maximum clock rate of kHz for all communications, and the use of Pin 8 as "interrupt" to try to initiate dialogue with the host device.
The one-bit SD protocol was derived from the MMC protocol, which envisioned the ability to put up to three cards on a bus of common signal lines. The cards use open collector interfaces, where a card may pull a line to the low voltage level; the line is at the high voltage level because of a pull-up resistor if no card pulls it low.
Though the cards shared clock and signal lines, each card had its own chip select line to sense that the host device had selected it. The SD protocol envisioned the ability to gang 30 cards together without separate chip select lines.
The host device would broadcast commands to all cards and identify the card to respond to the command using its unique serial number. In practice, cards are rarely ganged together because open-collector operation has problems at high speeds and increases power consumption. Newer versions of the SD specification recommend separate lines to each card. Host devices that comply with newer versions of the specification provide backward compatibility and accept older SD cards.
Older host devices generally do not support newer card formats, and even when they might support the bus interface used by the card,  there are several factors that arise:. Due to their compact size, Secure Digital cards are used in many consumer electronic devices, and have become a widespread means of storing several gigabytes of data in a small size. Devices in which the user may remove and replace cards often, such as digital cameras , camcorders , and video game consoles , tend to use full-sized cards.
Devices in which small size is paramount, such as mobile phones , action cameras such as the GoPro Hero series, and camera drones , tend to use microSD cards. The microSD card has helped propel the smartphone market by giving both manufacturers and consumers greater flexibility and freedom. While data stored internally on bricked devices is inaccessible , data stored on the memory card can be salvaged and accessed externally by the user as mass storage device.
A benefit over USB on the go storage expansion is uncompromised ergonomy. The usage of a memory card also protects the mobile phone's non-replaceable internal storage from weardown from heavy applications such as excessive camera usage and portable FTP server hosting over WiFi Direct.
Due to the technical development of memory cards, users of existing mobile devices are able to expand their storage further and priceworthier with time. Recent versions of major operating systems such as Windows Mobile and Android allow applications to run from microSD cards, creating possibilities for new usage models for SD cards in mobile computing markets, as well as clearing available internal storage space. SD cards are not the most economical solution in devices that need only a small amount of non-volatile memory, such as station presets in small radios.
They may also not present the best choice for applications that require higher storage capacities or speeds as provided by other flash card standards such as CompactFlash. These limitations may be addressed by evolving memory technologies, such as the new SD 7. Many personal computers of all types, including tablets and mobile phones, use SD cards, either through built-in slots or through an active electronic adapter. Active adapters also let SD cards be used in devices designed for other formats, such as CompactFlash.
The FlashPath adapter lets SD cards be used in a floppy disk drive. More recent mobile phones use a pin-hole ejection system for the tray which houses both the memory card and SIM card. Commonly found on the market are mislabeled or counterfeit Secure Digital cards that report a fake capacity or run slower than labeled. The files that were copied back can be tested either by comparing checksums e. MD5 , or trying to compress them. The latter approach leverages the fact that counterfeited cards let the user read back files, which then consist of easily compressible uniform data for example, repeating 0xFFs.
Some prosumer and professional digital cameras continued to offer CompactFlash CF , either on a second card slot or as the only storage, as CF supports much higher maximum capacities and historically was cheaper for the same capacity. Although many personal computers accommodate SD cards as an auxiliary storage device using a built-in slot, or can accommodate SD cards by means of a USB adapter, SD cards cannot be used as the primary hard disk through the onboard ATA controller, because none of the SD card variants support ATA signalling.
However, on computers that support bootstrapping from a USB interface, an SD card in a USB adapter can be the primary hard disk, provided it contains an operating system that supports USB access once the bootstrap is complete. In laptop and tablet computers , memory cards in an integrated card reader offer an ergonomical benefit over USB flash drives , as the latter sticks out of the device, and the user would need to be cautious not to bump it while transporting the device, which could damage the USB port.
Memory cards have a unified shape and do not reserve a USB port when inserted into a computer's dedicated card slot. SD cards are increasing in usage and popularity among owners of vintage computers like 8-bit Atari. Software for an 8-bit Atari may be included on one SD card that may have less than GB of disk size Even if a microcontroller lacks the SPI feature, the feature can be emulated by bit banging. The SD card specification defines three physical sizes.
Smaller cards are usable in larger slots through use of a passive adapter. The micro form factor is the smallest SD card format. Cards may support various combinations of the following bus types and transfer modes. Once the host device and the SD card negotiate a bus interface mode, the usage of the numbered pins is the same for all card sizes.
The physical interface comprises 9 pins, except that the miniSD card adds two unconnected pins in the center and the microSD card omits one of the two V SS Ground pins. SD cards and host devices initially communicate through a synchronous one-bit interface, where the host device provides a clock signal that strobes single bits in and out of the SD card. The host device thereby sends bit commands and receives responses. The card can signal that a response will be delayed, but the host device can abort the dialogue.
Through issuing various commands, the host device can: . SD cards dropped support for some of the commands in the MMC protocol, but added commands related to copy protection. By using only commands supported by both standards until determining the type of card inserted, a host device can accommodate both SD and MMC cards.
All SD card families initially use a 3. At initial power-up or card insertion, the host device selects either the Serial Peripheral Interface SPI bus or the one-bit SD bus by the voltage level present on Pin 1. Thereafter, the host device may issue a command to switch to the four-bit SD bus interface, if the SD card supports it. For various card types, support for the four-bit SD bus is either optional or mandatory.
After determining that the SD card supports it, the host device can also command the SD card to switch to a higher transfer speed. Until determining the card's capabilities, the host device should not use a clock speed faster than kHz. The host device is not required to use the maximum clock speed that the card supports.
It may operate at less than the maximum clock speed to conserve power. The SD specification defines four-bit-wide transfers. The MMC specification supports this and also defines an eight-bit-wide mode; MMC cards with extended bits were not accepted by the market. Transferring several bits on each clock pulse improves the card speed. Advanced SD families have also improved speed by offering faster clock frequencies and double data rate explained here in a high-speed differential interface UHS-II.
Like other types of flash memory card, an SD card of any SD family is a block-addressable storage device , in which the host device can read or write fixed-size blocks by specifying their block number. Most SD cards ship preformatted with one or more MBR partitions , where the first or only partition contains a file system.
This lets them operate like the hard disk of a personal computer. Most consumer products that take an SD card expect that it is partitioned and formatted in this way. Defragmentation tools for FAT file systems may be used on such cards. The resulting consolidation of files may provide a marginal improvement in the time required to read or write the file,  but not an improvement comparable to defragmentation of hard drives, where storing a file in multiple fragments requires additional physical, and relatively slow, movement of a drive head.
Moreover, defragmentation performs writes to the SD card that count against the card's rated lifespan. The write endurance of the physical memory is discussed in the article on flash memory ; newer technology to increase the storage capacity of a card provides worse write endurance.
Because the host views the SD card as a block storage device, the card does not require MBR partitions or any specific file system. The card can be reformatted to use any file system the operating system supports. For example:. Additionally, as with live USB flash drives, an SD card can have an operating system installed on it. Computers that can boot from an SD card either using a USB adapter or inserted into the computer's flash media reader instead of the hard disk drive may thereby be able to recover from a corrupted hard disk drive.
The SD Standard allows usage of only the above-mentioned Microsoft FAT file systems and any card produced in the market shall be preloaded with the related standard file system upon its delivery to the market. If any application or user re-formats the card with a non-standard file system the proper operation of the card, including interoperability, cannot be assured.
Reformatting an SD card with a different file system, or even with the same one, may make the card slower, or shorten its lifespan. Some cards use wear leveling , in which frequently modified blocks are mapped to different portions of memory at different times, and some wear-leveling algorithms are designed for the access patterns typical of FAT12, FAT16 or FAT Neither standard formatters nor the SD Association formatter will erase it.
The SD Association suggests that devices or software which use the SD security function may format it. During transfer it may be in the range of 66— mW 20— mA at a supply voltage of 3. Toshiba lists — mW 80— mA. All SD cards let the host device determine how much information the card can hold, and the specification of each SD family gives the host device a guarantee of the maximum capacity a compliant card reports.
By the time the version 2. The resulting cards do not work correctly in some host devices. In standard-capacity cards SDSC , 12 bits identify the number of memory clusters ranging from 1 to 4, and 3 bits identify the number of blocks per cluster which decode to 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, , , or blocks per cluster.
The host device multiplies these figures as shown in the following section with the number of bytes per block to determine the card's capacity in bytes. SD version 1. Version 1. In some cases, the host device can read data that happens to reside in the first 1 GB of the card.
If the assumption is made in the driver software, success may be version-dependent. Later versions state at Section 4. In the definition of SDHC cards in version 2. Capacities above 4 GB can only be achieved by following version 2. In addition, capacities equal to 4 GB must also do so to guarantee compatibility. Like most memory card formats, SD is covered by numerous patents and trademarks.
Early versions of the SD specification were available under a non-disclosure agreement NDA prohibiting development of open-source drivers. However, the system was eventually reverse-engineered and free software drivers provided access to SD cards not using DRM. Subsequent to the release of most open-source drivers, the SDA provided a simplified version of the specification under a less restrictive license helping reduce some incompatibility issues.
The Simplified Specification  is available. Again, most of the information had already been discovered and Linux had a fully free driver for it. The proprietary nature of the complete SD specification affects embedded systems , laptop computers, and some desktop computers; many desktop computers do not have card slots, instead using USB -based card readers if necessary.
These card readers present a standard USB mass storage interface to memory cards, thus separating the operating system from the details of the underlying SD interface. However, embedded systems such as portable music players usually gain direct access to SD cards and thus need complete programming information. Desktop card readers are themselves embedded systems; their manufacturers have usually paid the SDA for complete access to the SD specifications. Many notebook computers now include SD card readers not based on USB; device drivers for these essentially gain direct access to the SD card, as do embedded systems.
The SPI -bus interface mode is the only type that does not require a host license for accessing SD cards. Those open standards can be implemented without paying for licensing, royalties, or documentation. However, SD is much more open than Sony's Memory Stick , for which no public documentation nor any documented legacy implementation is available. Although the raw hardware interface to xD cards is well understood, the layout of its memory contents—necessary for interoperability with xD card readers and digital cameras—is totally undocumented.
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